In general, to increase your aerobic fitness you should exercise intensely enough to reach your target heart rate range. Your target heart rate range is 60% to 80% of your maximum heart rate. A general formula to determine your maximum heart rate is 220 minus your age. (For example, if you are 50 years old, your maximum heart rate is 170 and your target heart rate range is 102 to 136.) Check your heart rate as you exercise and try to keep it within your target heart rate range.
Aerobic exercise involves regular body part (e.g., arms or legs) movements that increase workload on the cardiovascular system. It is convenient and useful to think of the intensity of aerobic exercises in metabolic equivalents, or METs. One MET represents the amount of energy used at rest, and two METs is twice that much energy expenditure per unit of time, and so on. Aerobic exercise is widely recommended in contemporary guidelines. However, guidelines also indicate that exercise regimens are contraindicated in patients with unstable cardiovascular conditions, including but not limited to uncontrolled severe hypertension (BP ≥ 180/110 mm Hg). Conditions under which stress testing should be performed before initiation of an exercise regimen have been described.37
A recent randomized crossover trial of lower-intensity or high-intensity exercise showed decreases in clinical SBP with both types of exercise. However, there was no decrease in mean day or nighttime ambulatory BP with either form of exercise.42 Aerobic interval training (AIT) combines episodes of high-intensity with episodes of low-intensity aerobic exercise. At least two randomized studies have suggested an advantage of AIT over continuous aerobic exercise.43,44 Some patients, of course, have limited ability to use their legs, and upper extremity aerobic exercise also has been shown to lower BP.45
There’s no need to try to squeeze in all of your steps in one shot. In fact, you may get more benefit if you spread them out throughout the day. If you often get stuck at your desk for hours on end during your workday, try setting a reminder for every hour, and spend 15 minutes walking. If you’re able to repeat this five times a day, you may reach your 10,000 step goal before you leave work!

When running isn't in the cards, walking with added weight might be your next best bet for an effective workout. Research shows that walking on the treadmill while wearing a weighted vest can increase the metabolic costs and relative exercise intensity.The effect of weighted vest walking on metabolic responses and ground reaction forces. Puthoff ML, Darter BJ, Nielsen DH. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2006, Jun.;38(4):0195-9131. Similarly, increasing the incline on the treadmill makes for a more effective walking workout. A study showed that walking at a slow speed (1.7 mph) on a treadmill at a six-degree incline can be an effective weight management strategy for obese individuals, and help reduce risk of injury to lower extremity joints.Energetics and biomechanics of inclined treadmill walking in obese adults. Ehlen KA, Reiser RF, Browning RC. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2011, Oct.;43(7):1530-0315. And picking up the pace slightly almost always helps. One study found speed walkers had a decreased risk of mortality over their slower counterparts.The relationship of walking intensity to total and cause-specific mortality. Results from the National Walkers' Health Study. Williams PT, Thompson PD. PloS one, 2013, Nov.;8(11):1932-6203.
Classes are generally rated as beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Choose the level that fits your condition. It's no fun taking an advanced class if you're a beginner. It will be hard and frustrating and you won't enjoy the experience. Watch the class or speak with the instructor to help you decide what's right for you. Sometimes it comes down to the class time that fits your schedule, but just be sure to not get in too far over your head.
I recommend using a pedometer, or better yet, one of the newer wearable fitness trackers, to keep track and find out how far you normally walk. At first, you may be surprised to realize just how little you move each day. Tracking your steps can also show you how simple and seemingly minor changes to the way you move around during the day can add up. Plus, it’s motivating to see your steps increase throughout the day, which makes it easier to push yourself a little farther to reach your 10,000-step goal.
“Carrying extra weight will increase the intensity and your calories burned without requiring a lot of extra effort, depending on the weight you use,” adds Spraul. "You can hold dumbbells in your hands or put some heavy books in a backpack — whatever works for you! It doesn't have to be complicated. Just make sure that the added weight is not throwing you off balance.”
You burn more calories per mile at very low speeds because you are basically stopping and starting with each step and your momentum isn't helping to carry you along. Meanwhile, at very high walking speeds you are using more muscle groups with arm motion and with a racewalking stride. Those extra muscles burn up extra calories with each step. Running may burn more calories per mile as there is an up and down motion lifting your weight off the ground as well as moving it forward."
Fitness can be pricey! Money for a gym membership, home exercise equipment, workout clothes, and shoes adds up fast. But it doesn’t have to. Walking needs absolutely nothing to do it—even shoes are optional!—but still provides great health benefits. And not only does it save you money on things but it also saves you money in healthcare. Experts at Harvard estimate that for each dollar spent on preventative health, including time spent walking, you save $2.71 in future health costs. Use these easy strategies to lose more weight while walking.
For joints to work at their best, you need to keep them moving. Regular walking gives knee joints a workout, increases your muscle strength and can keep your bones strong, giving definition to calves, quads, hamstrings and lifting your glutes. Walking not only stimulates and strengthens bones, increases their density and helps maintain healthy joints, it can also fend off conditions such as arthritis and help prevent or alleviate back pain.
“There are many reasons to walk for exercise,” says Ann Green, M.S., past heptathlon world athlete, yoga teacher and fitness studio owner. “Walking improves fitness, cardiac health, alleviates depression and fatigue, improves mood, creates less stress on joints and reduces pain, can prevent weight gain, reduce risk for cancer and chronic disease, improve endurance, circulation, and posture, and the list goes on…”
Walking is an excellent, inexpensive exercise choice that can help you both lose weight and improve your cardiovascular health. If you’re looking to trim down, you may be wondering how many calories you can burn doing this activity. There’s no one-size-fits-all answer, as your burn has to do with a number of different factors, including your weight, pace, terrain, and more.

Walking is low impact, requires minimal equipment, can be done at any time of day and can be performed at your own pace. You can get out and walk without worrying about the risks associated with some more vigorous forms of exercise. Walking is also a great form of physical activity for people who are overweight, elderly, or who haven’t exercised in a long time.


Indoor cycling is a group exercise class performed on stationary bikes. During the class, the instructor guides you through simulated flat roads, hill climbing, sprints, and races, while you control resistance on your bike to make the pedaling as easy or difficult as instructed. It is a fun, vigorous cardiovascular workout. The instructor, the people around you, and the music help keep you motivated.
This walking calorie burn calculator estimates the calories that you burn while walking any given distance. The calculator takes into consideration the grade of the walking surface that you are on (i.e. the incline or decline), your weight, and the total walking distance and walking time. The incline or decline of the walking surface is taken into consideration because more calories are burned as the incline of the walking surface increases, and less calories are burned as the decline of the walking surface increases. You can read more about the method and equations used to determine calorie burn below the calculator.
That’s because the body requires energy to recover from exercise. “The greater the intensity and volume, the more calories will be burned after the exercise is completed,” explains Iain Hunter, a professor of exercise sciences at Brigham Young University. When exercising, you burn some of your stored fuels; replenishing those stores takes energy. Your body uses energy to repair any microdamage from exercise as well. Plus, “along with caloric expenditure, there are many other benefits to higher intensity exercise, such as increased bone density, improved strength and endurance, more resilient cartilage and other tissues that degrade over time, and psychological health.”
Knowing a bit about the health benefits of walking can also help you stay on track. Not only can walking benefit your heart, bones, and joints, it can also prolong your life. In a 10-year study of 650,000 adults over 40, those who got 75 minutes of moderate activity, like walking, weekly, lived on average, nearly two years longer than their sedentary counterparts. Walkers who logged just over an hour a day gained four and a half years!
In light of the benefits associated with HIIT, Dr. Nose created a regimen of fast walking and gentle strolling, to see if this kind of program might provide greater fitness benefits than walking at a steady pace. The program consisted of repeated intervals of three minutes of fast walking, aiming for an exertion level of about six or seven on a scale of one to 10, followed by three minutes of slow strolling. The results turned out to be very promising. As reported by the "New York Times":13
It all starts with breathing. The average healthy adult inhales and exhales about 7 to 8 liters of air per minute. Once you fill your lungs, the oxygen in the air (air contains approximately 20% oxygen) is filtered through small branches of tubes (called bronchioles) until it reaches the alveoli. The alveoli are microscopic sacs where oxygen diffuses (enters) into the blood. From there, it's a beeline direct to the heart.
There are times when you deserve to feel pleased with yourself and last week was one of them. Science, you see, confirmed something that I had worked out a decade and a half ago, namely: regular walking is the best thing you can do to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. According to the study from the London School of Economics, brisk walking is a better deterrent against obesity than any other form of exercise. Forget the gym or five-aside, stuff running, spinning, zumba and squash… Walking officially beats them all, hands ( or trainer’d feet) down.
It all starts with breathing. The average healthy adult inhales and exhales about 7 to 8 liters of air per minute. Once you fill your lungs, the oxygen in the air (air contains approximately 20% oxygen) is filtered through small branches of tubes (called bronchioles) until it reaches the alveoli. The alveoli are microscopic sacs where oxygen diffuses (enters) into the blood. From there, it's a beeline direct to the heart.
You got this. You started walking before you could speak in full sentences. Build your walking time and speed incrementally. Start with a 10- to 15-minute walk. Once that feels good, build up your time a few minutes for each outing. Slow and steady wins the race. Remember, at any speed, you're lapping everyone who is just sitting and thinking they should be exercising. Yes, walking is a real exercise.
Use the 1-to-10 scale of perceived rate of exertion to measure endurance. Think of 1 as watching TV; 10 is gasping for air (you can't go any further). Daily walks, for example, are 5 or even 6-6.5 sometimes. Twice a week, crank it up to 7, 8, or 9 on a steep hill for a few minutes. Now you're burning serious calories and building real aerobic fitness through interval training.
4. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, The President s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Physical activity and health: a report of the Surgeon General. Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, 1996. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/summary.htm myDr myDr provides comprehensive Australian health and medical information, images and tools covering symptoms, diseases, tests, medicines and treatments, and nutrition and fitness.
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A study conducted with 17,000 Harvard graduates showed that students who walked for at least 30 minutes every day lived longer than those who were sedentary (17). Walking may or may not activate the telomerase enzyme, which is responsible for maintaining DNA integrity, an important factor in aging, but it helps prevent many age-related problems (18).
Getting a solid eight hours snoozing in the sack is one of the most important things you can do for your health. But sometimes that’s easier said than done. Thankfully a brisk walk is basically Ambien, minus the pill (and the scary sleep-walking stories). In a large meta-analysis of sleep studies, researchers found that regular walkers had longer and better quality sleep. And for those unlucky few who still had insomnia? Walking helped reduce the number of sleepless nights they experienced. Find out which side of the road is safest for walking and why.
As you get started toward the recommended 30 minutes of moderately intense aerobic exercise five days per week, aim to exercise at a level that just lets you keep up a conversation during the activity. If you can get out three or four sentences in a row without gasping for air, it’s a sign that you’re maintaining an intensity that is truly aerobic, meaning aerobic metabolism is supplying the vast majority of your body’s energy, Jonesco says.

Keep in mind that both fuels are almost always burned simultaneously, except during the most intense, short-term bursts of energy, like sprinting and weightlifting. It's the percentage of fat and carbohydrate burned that changes during a workout depending on the intensity, but you almost never burn just one exclusively. You burn fat while you're at rest, and you burn it during virtually every moment of exercise. It's a myth to think that it takes 20-30 minutes of exercise before your muscles start burning fat.
Studies have shown that (1) microbial community composition may play an important role in xenobiotic processing in soil and other soil processes (Cavigelli and Robertson, 2000; Balser et al., 2002) and (2) the microbial communities residing at depth are not simply diluted analogs of the surface microbial communities, but exhibit considerable differentiation (Ghiorse and Wilson, 1988; Fritze et al., 2000; Blume et al., 2002). In fact, the microbial communities in the soil subsurface may function differently from those at different depths. Aerobic microbes predominated the surface soil or soil rich in moisture and oxygen, whereas anaerobic microbes predominated the deep soil (Li et al., 2014a; Fierera et al., 2003; Blume et al., 2002).
These electrons have powerful antioxidant effects that can protect your body from inflammation and its many well-documented health consequences. For example, one scientific review published in the "Journal of Environmental and Public Health" concluded that grounding (walking barefoot on the earth) could improve a number of health conditions, including the following:15
"Just the fact that you are using your arms through a greater range of motion than normal means you burn more calories," says Pocari. On average, people use 20 percent more calories when they use poles. Participants in his studies increased their upper body strength by 40 percent and reduced impact on vulnerable hips, ankles and knees by 26 percent compared with running.

Walking is a great exercise and helps you lose weight. American scientists designed an experiment where obese patients walked together (a concept known as the ‘walking bus’) to their destinations in and around the city. After 8 weeks, their weight was checked, and more than 50% of the participants lost an average of 5 pounds (4). Therefore, it might be a good idea to start walking to and from your nearby destinations, instead of driving your car.


Aerobic exercise is indicated for patients who lack the ability to sustain activity for a desired period of time because of decreased cardiovascular efficiency. Oftentimes, these patients have complaints of fatigue with a given level of exercise. Aerobic exercise increases the body’s capacity to absorb, deliver, and utilize oxygen. However, there are some limitations to being able to use aerobic conditioning for older adults. Joint pain and/or muscle weakness may preclude a patient from being able to perform the multiple contractions needed to provide a cardiovascular stimulus. In those cases, strengthening exercises may be needed prior to attempting aerobic exercise. For example, when an individual who is not on β-blockers walks 200 m on the 6MWT, but the heart rate only increases 10 beats per minute (bpm), the assumption can be made that the individual was not able to exert enough effort to increase heart rate and that a lack of muscle strength may exist.30
Your weight isn't the sole factor that dictates the rate that you burn calories during your walk. If you're able to increase your pace, the walk instantly becomes a more efficient calorie-burning activity. A 150-pound person burns about 240 calories in an hour of walking at 2 mph, notes the UMMS. When this person increases her pace to 3 mph, her hour-long walk burns about 320 calories. If she can sustain a 4.5-mph pace for 60 minutes, she'll burn about 440 calories on her walk. 

Impaired aerobic capacity, also known as impaired endurance, is a common patient impairment that can limit participation in functional, occupational, and recreational activities. Even functional tasks that require only a few minutes can be limited by aerobic capacity. Older adults are particularly vulnerable to impaired aerobic capacity due to anatomic and physiological changes that occur with aging, greater propensity for sedentary behaviors, and greater risk for disease processes that limit the oxygen transport system.1 In addition, aerobic capacity is directly influenced by the habitual activity pattern of an individual, which may vary across individuals from total inactivity to frequent and intense activity. Any factors that limit habitual physical activity, such as illness, injury, and or travel, will cause adaptations that diminish aerobic capacity. Conversely, any factors that promote habitual physical activity, such as intentional exercise, yard work, and occupation-related physical tasks, will result in adaptations that improve aerobic capacity. In older adults, many physiological, pathological, and psychosocial factors can contribute to restricted physical activity. Figure 12-1 depicts the persistent vicious cycle that can be created when sedentary behaviors, chronic disease, and functional dependency interact.2 This chapter will provide an overview of causes and factors contributing to impaired aerobic capacity in older adults and describes physical therapist patient management (examination, evaluation, diagnosis, and interventions) to address decreased endurance and its impact on function.
Classes can vary in their intensity with some classes more suited to beginners than others — so check first. As with running there’s always the chance of injury to knees or ankles, but a good instructor should ensure you exercise correctly to reduce the risk. You may not need to join a gym full time to take advantage of aerobic classes as many gyms offer casual classes.
One program created by Dr. Hiroshi Nose and colleagues at the Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine in Matsumoto, Japan consists of repeated intervals of three minutes of fast walking, aiming for an exertion level of about six or seven on a scale of one to 10, followed by three minutes of slow strolling. As reported by The New York Times:13
When the weather outside is frightful, many people turn to treadmills. Admittedly, treadmills are boring. Spice up a complete treadmill workout by using elevation to give the sense of a trail. You don't have to follow the preprogrammed courses. Create your own interval training with hills. Make it a mental game. Life isn't automated and your treadmill workout shouldn't be either. Ascend and descend by varying your elevations and speeds.
Complete your workout with a three to five minute cooldown. It will give your muscles a chance to slow down gradually and reduce the risk of dizziness. Individuals who stop aerobic exercise abruptly can experience "pooling" of blood in the legs from standing still right after exertion. Cooling down is important after any aerobic activity, so always make sure to take three to five minutes at the end of your workout to slow down gradually.
Also known as a cooling vest or ice vest, the revolutionary vests must be used appropriately for you to experience the best results. You need to use it only when you are at a comfortable temperature. Examples of these scenarios are sitting in your car, watching a football game, driving, working in the office or resting in a room or in an outdoor area when not exercising.

Getting a solid eight hours snoozing in the sack is one of the most important things you can do for your health. But sometimes that’s easier said than done. Thankfully a brisk walk is basically Ambien, minus the pill (and the scary sleep-walking stories). In a large meta-analysis of sleep studies, researchers found that regular walkers had longer and better quality sleep. And for those unlucky few who still had insomnia? Walking helped reduce the number of sleepless nights they experienced. Find out which side of the road is safest for walking and why.
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